Saturday, August 27, 2016

Wayang : Traditional Performance Art of Indonesia.

Gamelan in Saung Anggklung Mang Udjo.
Wayang ,or Puppet, is traditional performance art of Indonesia, particularly popular in Java and Bali Islands but also known to have spread in Sumatera Island, Borneo Island, Madura Island, Lombok Island as well as Malay Peninsula.In the Java language, the word wayang means "shadow". If the terms of the meaning of his philosophy, "puppet" can be interpreted as a shadow or a reflection of the existing properties of the human soul such as anger, righteousness, greed, etc. 
Puppets in Suang Angklung Mang Udjo.
Since 2003 puppet, particularly leather puppet, has received a status as the world cultural heritage.  The Organization Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) On November 7, 2003 recognized the puppet as World Master Piece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Since then on, it becomes the responsibility of Indonesia to preserve this cultural heritage for the whole World.
The Wayang play is performed by a puppet master, or Dalang, who is assisted by several gamelan players and one or two people waranggana as vocalist. The function of a puppet master here is to set the course for the entire show. Dalang leads all components to yield performances in the groove of the story presented.

There are several types of puppets known in the Java community. It turns out that the types of Wayang or Puppets including : Wayang Kulit (Purwa), Wayang Klithik, Wayang Golek, Wayang Beber, Wayang Orang and Wayang Suket.

Wayang Kulit
As the name implies, shadow puppets are made from animal skins such as buffalo, cattle, or goats. Wayang Kulit is used to demonstrate plays or stories from the Babad Purwa, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Therefore, shadow play is called by the name Wayang Purwa. Until now the puppet show, as well as entertainment, is also one part of traditional ceremonies, such as: village clean, ruwatan and others. 

Wayang Klithik
Klithik puppet is made of wood with two-dimensional form (flat) almost similar to the form of Wayang Kulit. There are similarities between Wayang Kulit and Wayang klithik namely the gamelan, the vocalist, the language used in dialogue, floor design, lighting equipment used in the performance and others. Nonetheless, many of us have encountered differences.

This leather puppet show generally only function as usual spectacle that sometimes contains  enlightenment mission of government program (for the extension of development activities). To that end, Wayang Klithik is sometimes referred to by the name of Wayang Suluh . Setting the stage is a little bit different with shadow puppets. Puppet Klithik though the design of the floor is a straight line, but do not use the screen. To plug a puppet,  holed bamboo is used.
 


Wayang Golek
As with klithik puppet, Wayang Golek is also made of wood. But Wayang Golek has a three-dimensional shape(like a puppet). Wayang Golek is more realistic than the leather puppets and Klithik puppets. Because, besides its shape resembles the shape of the human body, Wayang Golek is also equipped with a costume made of fabric. A Wayang Golek in addition to the usual spectacle, is still often performed as a ceremonial village cleaning. The play exhibited comes from Babad Menak, namely the history of Arab lands before the birth of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.

Wayang Beber
Wayang Beber is the art of puppet that emerged and developed in Java. Beber puppet named because the form of sheets (explanation) are formed into the characters in the puppet story, both the Mahabharata and Ramayana.It is said by the Wali Songo (The Nine Propagators of Islam in Java), such as Sunan Kalijaga, Beber puppet is modified into a form of shadow play with forms that are ornamental that is known now. Because Islam forbids the form of images of living beings (humans, animals) or sculptures as well as by the figures that does not exist in the Baboons puppet (puppet with the original figure of India), which are Semar and his sons (Punakawan) and Heritage of Hyang Kalimasada.  

 
 
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